Scientific Paper describing our research work done using our designs of VOC analysers and electronic noses

Electronic nose responses and acute phase proteins correlate in blood using a bovine model of respiratory infection

Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical

Henri Knoblocha, Wieland Schroedlb, Claire Turnerc, Mark Chambersd, Petra Reinholde a Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Collage Road, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK b Institute of Bacteriology and Mycology, Veterinary Faculty at the University of Leipzig, Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 29, 04103 Leipzig, Germany c Department of Chemistry and Analytical Science, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK d TB Research Group, Department of Statutory and Exotic Bacterial Diseases Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge Woodham Lane New Haw, Addlestone Surrey KT15 3NB, UK e Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis at the 'Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut' (FLI; Federal Research Institute of Animal Health), Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany


This study aimed (i) to assess the ability of electronic nose (e-nose) technology to differentiate between blood samples of experimentally infected and non-infected subjects and (ii) to evaluate e-nose responses given by volatile organic compounds in relation to the acute phase reaction generated in the host. In an animal model of gram-negative bacterial infection (20 calves; intratracheal inoculation of Mannheimia haemolytica A1), the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APPs; i.e. lipopolysaccharide binding protein and haptoglobin) were measured in serum samples before and after challenge, and headspaces of pre- and post-inoculation serum samples were analysed using a conducting polymer-based e-nose. Significant changes of certain e-nose sensor responses allowed discrimination between samples before and after challenge. The maximal changes in responses of sensitive e-nose sensors corresponded to the peak of clinical signs. Significant correlations linked decreasing responses of multiple e-nose sensors to increasing concentrations of APPs in the peripheral blood.