Scientific Paper describing research work done using our designs of VOC analysers and electronic noses

Application of electronic nose technology for the detection of fungal contamination in library paper

International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 54 (2004) 303 - 309

Olinda Canhotoa, Flavia Pinzarib, Corrado Fanellic, Naresh Magana; aApplied Mycology Group, Cranfield Biotechnology Centre, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Bedford MK43 0AL, UK bInstituto Centrale per la Patolog#$a and Biologia del Libro, Rome, Italy cUniversit(a degli Studi di Roma, La Sapienza, Dip. Biolog#$a Vegetale, Rome, Italy Received 11 December 2003; accepted 13 April 2004


Studies were carried out in vitro on a cellulose based agar at two water activities (aw; 0:975; 0:995) and on three types of paper at two relative humidities (75, 100% RH) for the potential for differentiation of contamination and colonisation by Aspergillus terreus, A. holandicus and Eurotium chevalieri. In vitro studies showed that conducting polymer sensor array gave different responses to each of these species when grown on cellulose agar at both aw levels. Discriminant function analyses of the data showed differentiation of the controls from the spoilage fungi. Cluster analysis gave a signi6cant (P =0:05) separation of the control and each spoilage fungus. In situ studies on three types of paper showed that using natural substrates the volatile patterns produced by each of these fungi was different from each other and from the control. The results obtained were better at the higher humidity. The three paper types could be successfully differentiated into clusters. For a single paper type, differentiation of controls from spoilage fungal treatments was better at the higher humidity. This study has shown that this technology has potential for the early detection of fungal contamination in library materials and archives for the improved protection of cultural heritage.